Cryptography, also known as computer encryption, is a field that studies digital codes used to encrypt data and transmit it effectively across networks. It is used in many fields, including email encryption, credit card security and network systems. The code-coding is done using mathematical algorithms and are usually transmitted in pairs – a key and a secret key. Encryption is done with the help of a secret decoder, which takes the message that needs to be encrypted and makes a cipher out of it.
In order for Cryptography to work, two kinds of channels need to be present: an unencrypted channel and an encrypted channel. In order to make an unencrypted channel possible, there is a way to encrypt a data once and then decrypt it (that is, pass it through an encryption function) at another time. This kind of channel is referred to as a symmetric encryption. On the other hand, in order to make an unencrypted channel possible, an encryption function can be used to encrypt and then decrypt data in real time, thus being called an asymmetric encryption.
In order to explain how Cryptography works, we have to understand first what is needed to secure communications. To do this, we must first identify the way in which messages are encrypted and the way in which the encryption is done. As we will see later on, two important properties of Cryptography are keeping data secure and the fact that it is done using a secret key.
Quantum Computing is one of the most crucial concepts that comes with Cryptography. In order for Cryptography to work, it is done with the use of a large number of bits. These bits take the form of a qubit, which is a bit that is both a one and a zero. In a nutshell, a qubit is a virtual key that can be used to turn ordinary data into a completely secure key. The main goal behind the development of quantum computing, named after the quantum computing theory that brought it to light, was the goal of creating a system through which information could be protected from being read by anyone else.
One of the goals of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) is to standardize the set of ciphers used by cryptographers. Standardization is meant to bring together the sets of cryptographic keys that cryptographers will use in order to create digital message. A digital encryption algorithm is designed so that it would be impossible for anyone to decipher the code. However, with the aid of a highly sophisticated computer program, the cryptographers might be able to crack the code.
Cryptography as a whole is also referred to as Information encryption or digital coding. Encryption involves taking an unencrypted message and transforming it into an encrypted message. This transformation is done with the help of a secret key, which is only known to the owner of the key. With digital encryption, no key is kept on display for anyone to see. Cryptographers take care however, not to reveal the secret key to the person having the possession of the secret data.
There are many kinds of Cryptography. Two of the most common forms areryption and the substitution cipher. Cryptography can be categorized according to three methods, the public key cryptography, the symmetrical key cryptography, and the compression cipher. In public key Cryptography, the keys are generated from a set of public keys. For the symmetrical key cryptography, the keys are derived from a set of private keys.
Symmetrical key encryption algorithm is a type of block cipher used for symmetrical key encryption. The output of a symmetrical block cipher is a product that is a product of two hash functions. In compression cipher, a secret key is generated from a set of random words. A compression cipher is used in message authentication because it is highly effective for messages with very small parts. It compresses the message into very small pieces.